Journal of the Kosciusko Guards • Company E • 12th Regiment

 Written by William S. Hemphill • Transcribed by Marjorie Priser

 Chapter 4

Going East to the War

[July] 23rd Marched to the cars and embarked for Indianapolis at 9 o'clock, arrived at Indianapolis at 9 p.m. and lay in Central Depot all night. On the 24th the regiment was marched to the State House and formally transferred to the U.S. Service by Gov. Morton, who in a few remarks, tried to smooth over the rough places in our experience with the State officers. The regiment remained in bivouac in the State House Square over night, not very well satisfied at the way the powers that be have acted. The arms furnished, as we were assured only to drill with, we are now informed will have to be taken to the front, when we know they are unfit for service and that there is now improved arms laying in the arsenal.

[July] 25th At 7½ a.m. Took up our line of march for the Depot where we embarked on the cars and at 10 a.m. left Indianapolis for the seat of war via Madison, Dayton, Columbus, Zenia, Newark and Steubenville. All along the road the citizens treated us with kindness especially at London where provisions were supplied in abundance and a general effort was made to make us comfortable.
[July] 26th Arrived at Steubenville at 11 a.m. and Pittsburg at 3 p.m. Were hurried off immediately for Harrisburg where we arrived on the 27th about 10½ a.m. where we were detained till 5 o'clock. Took cars for Baltimore via York. Since leaving Pittsburg we have had rather hard times for provisions, as immense numbers of troops are returning home from the three months service, while every available man is being hurried to the front to protect Washington from the victorious rebels, who having defeated our forces at Bull Run are now almost masters of the situation.

[July] 28th Arrived at Baltimore about 5 o'clock a.m. and marched through the city to the southern Depot. Our march was quite a different one from that of the Massachusetts troops a few weeks before. They were greeted by howls of rage and the assaults of a rebel mob which carried death to the ranks and furnished some of the first martyrs in the unholy rebellion; while we were greeted with cheers, the waving of Flags and Handkerchiefs and a generous supply of fresh water and provisions, both of which were very much needed on this sultry Sabbath.

At 7 a.m. we embarked on the cars for Harper's Ferry passing through a wild looking, mountainous country, while at every village along the road the true hearted people cheered us and waved Flags, while bouquets were showered upon us till every man in the Regiment had one to display, making it look more like some holy day excursion, than one of war's stern realities. The most touching sight was at one place when about a hundred little girls dressed in white and decked with flowers were formed in two ranks on the platform. The front rank was kneeling with hands clasped, as if in prayer, while the rear rank stood with the right hands raised pointing to Heaven. Not a word was spoken, but the big tears rolled down many a manly cheek. All along the route women could be seen kneeling in prayer, while many would plead with tears in their eyes that we would not allow the old flag to be humbled. Such was the greetings all through Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania and thus far in Maryland. The love for the Union appears to be just as sincere.

The Regiment reported to General N. P. Banks at 4½ o'clock p.m. and marched back onto the hill about one mile and went into camp. Harpers Ferry presents a rather desolate appearance with the bare blackened walls of the Arsenal and Government buildings recently destroyed by fire. The position is one of great strength and can be held by a small force against almost any force making a direct attack. The Brigade organization to which we are attached is composed of the 2nd and 12th Massachusetts and the 12th and 16th Indiana Regiments commanded by Brig. Gen. Abercrombie. Jos. B. Dodge, who has worked faithfully since our first attempt to organize a company and has been untiring in his efforts for the comfort of the men, accompanied us from Indianapolis and now (July 31st) starts for home with the best wishes of the entire company. Lieut. Gallagher also leaves for Philadelphia for the purpose of procuring a "Sword" instead of the "walking stick" he has heretofore so valiantly yielded, and also to procure a "Snort" of better whiskey than the commissary does provide.

A letter was received by the orderly dated at Milford July 24th in which the writer Jacob Brumbaugh proceeds to give all his reasons why he cannot report back to the company from which he had a short leave of absence, to enable him to arrange his affairs at home. His boy is sick. He has had no opportunity to run around or see any body. His stock is running out in the woods. The Mitchell Judgement is gone up a spout. The Shoup claim he may save by going to law. He can't get any one to take care of his family and stock. He must prepare wintering for them or sell them. They would bring nothing worth mentioning. He can't think of losing his property and leaving his family to suffer and asks to be excused. It is feared that if Jacob don't keep out of the Provost Guard's hands he won't be excused, for the present he is marked as our first "Deserter."

August 2d Company E was ordered out for picket duty for the first time and was stationed on Maryland Heights leaving 18 men in camp. Before going out on duty the acting Inspector General of the Brigade inspected and condemned the arms of the regiment.

[Aug.] 3rd Mother Rumor is not yet dead, as all kinds of reports are in circulation with regard to the regiment being or not being in the Service. Of only one thing are we assured and that is the heat is most oppressive. Several men had to be carried off the parade ground, overcome with the heat.

[Aug.] 4th The company was relieved from picket duty and reported in camp.

[Aug.] 5th Received orders to be ready to march at 3 o'clock a.m. tomorrow. As there has been some lively skirmishing near Point of Rocks between some New York troops and the Rebels to day, such orders occasioned a quiver of excitement among the men.

[Aug.] 6th At the appointed time the camp was all astir and at 5 o'clock we took up our line of march up Pleasant Valley and went into camp about five miles back with the Brigade to which we are attached, which consists of 12th Mass. 12th and 16th Ind. Infantry and Doubleday's Battery.

[Aug.] 7th Our valiant Colonel John M. Wallace having resigned his Commission to accept a position in the Pay Department where he will not be quite so much exposed to Rebel bullets, a Regimental election was held resulting in the election of Lieut. Col. Linck as Colonel. Maj. Geo. Humphrey as Lieut. Col. and Capt. Henry Hubler of Company E as Major. This produced a vacancy in Company E which was filled by electing 2nd Lieut. Reub Williams as Captain, James F. McGuire was elected 2nd Lieut. vice Williams promoted, but by a little extra wire working Sergeant Andrew S. Milice was recommended and Commissioned to fill that office. This caused considerable dissatisfaction, as the choice of the company was clear and the determination on the part of certain persons to disregard their wishes with regard to promotions gave just grounds for complaint. The rule adopted by the State authorities about this time to make promotions in regular order, unless for good cause shown was wise and just, as under the System we had just laid aside, promotions were made by favoritism alone.

[Aug.] 9th James M. Nicely and Samuel McClary were discharged on Surgeons Certificate of Disability. A good joke is told of one of the men in our regiment. A few nights since there was a false alarm. Col. Wallace gave the order Lights Out which has since become the by-word of the regiment, but during the excitement one of the men was discovered behind a stump on his knees praying very earnestly "Oh Lord, why didst thou put it into the heart of thy servant the Chief Magistrate of the State of Indiana to send us into this dreary country? Lord why didst thou not retain us in the States Service?" It has never been ascertained whether the Lord answered these very important inquiries satisfactorily or not.

[Aug.] 15th Received orders to march to Maryland Heights for picket duty again, but about 8 o'clock p.m. the orders were to strike tents at day-break ready for a march, with four days rations.

[Aug.] 16th At 5 o'clock a.m. the Regiment was in line ready to move but being compelled to await the movement of the right of the Brigade, did not get started till 10 o'clock. Whilst waiting for our turn to move, orders were given to discharge all pieces that were loaded. Some of the men instead of discharging their pieces into the bank in front, fired rather high, endangering some troops encamped about half a mile south of us. A messenger was sent over to stop it just as Co. C was about to begin firing. Orders were given to the Lieut. in command who rushed forward just as the company came to an "aim" when he yelled out "Elevate your guns a leedle lower", which called forth a roar of laughter from the regiment and gave rise to another "camp saying" that was often afterwards hear in the army.

At 10 o'clock we marched to the Potomac and then took the road leading to Washington City. On the 17th we marched about eight miles crossing the Monocacy and encamped on the south bank to await the movements of Bank's Division.

Aug 19th Again on the road, the 12th in advance. About noon the advance guard reported the enemy in front. The word was given and away went the Hoosiers on the double quick up hill and down, yelling like mad, till the top of the hill South of Hyattstown was reached, where we rested till the balance of the Brigade came up about four hours after us.

During the march Col. Webster of the 12th Mass. came forward, as he said, to find out whether he was on the right road, as they could not keep in sight of us and thought they were on the wrong road. That evening his Regiment came straggling into camp more than half of them without knapsacks which had been piled onto the wagons. In Dress Parade, Col. Webster took occasion to remark to his men: "You have laughed and sneered at the Side Show long enough and it is true you make a finer appearance on Dress Parade as you have finer clothes and better arms, but boys, the Hoosiers will eat a slap-jack for breakfast, double-quick all day, with never a thought of having a knapsack hauled, and when you get into Camp you find them with supper over, jumping, wrestling or running races as though suffering for exercise. Don't say side show again till you have learned how to keep within supporting distance."

[Aug.] 22nd The only exciting thing about camp was a meeting in New York Regiment which had been organized under State Authority for two years service. They supposed they had been sent to the front for three months and claimed that their time had expired, and demanded a discharge which was refused; whereupon they stacked their arms and attempted to march out of camp. The General at once ordered Doubleday's Battery into position with the 12th Ind. Reg't as support and gave them twenty minutes to return to camp and to duty, which they did without any further trouble. This was a good lesson to a great many men, who had often thought they could at any time set aside their contract with government the same as with an individual, but were by this undeceived.

[Aug.] 26th Company E was sent out on Picket. One post was at the junction of the Washington City with the Leesburg road. The duty was to examine all that passed, whence they came, whither going and their authority for passing the lines. During the day a buggy containing two men was stopped; a fine looking old gentleman looked out and asked our will concerning him; upon being informed of our orders, he replied: "I am a good sound union man, a lover of my Country, and her flag, for which already a portion of my blood has been spilled. My name is Kimball, my rank a Major General in the army (opening his duster which hid his uniform), my business to visit my old friend Genl Banks. You have done your duty. Continue to be vigilant and the Country is safe in your hands." He was allowed to pass on to Head Quarters.

[Aug.] 27th General Banks sent a complimentary letter to the Regiment for the promptness with which they discharged their duties. Read at Dress Parade.

[Aug.] 28th Review of our Brigade (2nd) by Maj. Genl Banks. In the evening received orders to march at 6 a.m. on the 29th. Morning came and with it, came rain in torrents. Our Regiment was detailed as rear guard and lay by the side of the road all day in the rain watching the troops and trains moving by. The day wore away and it was not till 4 o'clock on the morning of the 30th that we finally moved forward and after a very fatiguing if not such a lengthy march, encamped near Darnstown about three miles from the Potomac, where we remained engaged in the usual camp duties, drills for several days.

Our camp was in a very pleasant position from which a view of other camps was really sublime. As far as the eye could reach camp-fires are seen burning on the neighboring hills, after night, while the lights in the tents produced a peculiar illumination seen only in the army and then only at rare intervals. While the sounds of a camp are indescribable. The rolling murmur of thousands of voices, interspersed with shouts, calls, singing, swearing, cheering; bands playing in different direction produces a harmonious discord of sounds that will lull the listener into a dreamy state from which he will be aroused by the roll of drums in every regiment and the order "Fall in for Roll Call". Then the peculiar intonations of voice with which names or numbers are called and responded to, all combines to render the scene and sounds indescribable.
Sept. 6th There was heavy firing at the river and at 1 o'clock we were ordered to prepare rations and be ready to move at a moments notice.

[Sept.] 7th Regimental Band came on for duty.

[Sept.] 8th Company E on guard duty with supply train where we remained till 4 p.m. on the 9th roasting corn and chaffering with passers-by.

[Sept.] 11th The Captain and Lieut. Milice and eleven men went out to capture some rebel arms they had received information about. Returned at 9 p.m. with three uniforms and one stand of arms.

[Sept.] 16th There was a great time among the men to get letters written to send home with Capt. Williams who is detailed to recruit for the regiment, and nearly every man had from 2 to 211 verbal messages to send which it would be impossible for any man to remember.

[Sept.] 17th Capt. Williams left for home on recruiting service, leaving the company nominally under command of Lieut. Gallagher. Tommy Hubler goes along on thirty days furlough. In the evening our camp was cheered by the arrival of Dr. Hazzard from home.

[Sept.] 19th Pay-day. No drill. No one was sorry to see the yellow boys. At 10 o'clock p.m. the long roll was beat and the 12th Mass. ordered to the river, much to the disappointment of the balance of the Brigade.

[Sept.] 21st Received a new uniform of regulation blue. Discard the old.

[Sept.] 28th Ordered to march to support Col. Geary at Point of Rocks. Started at 9 o'clock a.m. and reported at Nolins Ferry in just three hours, distance 25 miles, carrying a load of about 40 lbs to the man. This was rather bigger marching than Lew Wallace's celebrated march on Romney of 31 miles in 8 hours without knapsacks.

We encamped in a beautiful grove, but our position being exposed to the enemy's fire, we moved about three miles west on the 29th. The movement was very quiet; no one living along the road knew of it.

[Sept.] 30th Poor camp - miserable water - and no provisions till mid-day. Capt. Saml Boughter promoted to Sergeant vice Milice promoted 2nd Lieut. George Deardorff promoted to Corporal vice Saml Boughter promoted. Quite a number of men managed to get out of camp today and procured a supply of "ammunition" which they used quite freely, in consequence of which they became rather unsteady and noisy.

Oct 2nd Moved to within a half mile of Point of Rocks where we encamped in a beautiful grove. The enemy are now on the other side of the Potomac river, and within hailing distance of our pickets. Many polite invitations are given to visit each other.

[Oct.] 3rd Our camping ground being rather pleasant the boys said we would be sure to get orders to march. This was the case for in the evening the orders came; and on the morning of the 4th we moved to Poolesville. This was the hardest march we have had yet. The day was excessively warm; the roads dry and very dusty and the only procurable water was a few degrees past lukewarm; although we only marched 13 miles we found on getting into camp only twenty men in the company and it, the largest company in the camp. More than two thirds of the Regiment had given out and kept crawling into camp until midnight. On the 5th the march was continued to Dannorsville, a distance of ten miles where we found the 16th and 27th Indiana and several N. York and Penn Regiments and went into camp near them, where we rested on the 6th.

On the 7th there was heavy firing toward the river. About 4 p.m. a heavy rain came up which continued all night, accompanied by a high wind which blew down over one half of the tents. There was a great many amusing incidents during the night. Sometimes the men would be suddenly awakened with the rain pouring down upon them, and no sign of a tent to shelter them. In the next tent probably would be found every man holding the tent down to keep it from blowing away, while in still another the men would find themselves stretched across a respectable stream making a dam; and I verily believe they did generally damn that water strong enough to have run a good sized grist mill to say nothing of the dam-age to a christian's reputation. Curses were both loud and deep but I could not see that they did any good. I found the best way was to lay still on one side till well soaked. Then turn over and get the other side soaked too. By this means a man can catch cold all one alike.

Oct. 8th Cold - Wet - Windy Water five inches deep in our tent. In the afternoon we moved our camp across the hollow to a better location. All the women in the camp were ordered home and there was an exciting time, as there was a large number of them and they had to be driven out of camp by the Provost Guard.

Our camp is a lively place - when off duty the soldier's life is one of constant enjoyment and discontent mingled in nearly equal doses. Here a little group speculating over the latest camp rumor or the next probable move. There a euchre party. Here a man asleep amid all the din that surrounds him. There another oblivious to all that is going on, over the pages of some old novel - while another is just as deeply interested in a letter to "The girl he left behind" or some other person. The notes of two or three old violins, "confiscated" on the march furnishes music for as many sets to trip the "Light fantastic too" while the usual complement of "Darkies" raise cain generally. If the weather is fair they are all gay - happy free from care, but if it should be wet and gloomy like weather like soldier. Nearly always complaining of the strict discipline or hardships of a soldier's life while in camp let the order pass to march and we would suppose they had received an invitation to dine with the President and if that dignitary should happen to get in their way or bother them with remarks he would in all probability receive an invitation to visit a place, supposed to be uncomfortably warm.

Oct. 10th At 2 o'clock a.m. orders were received to prepare three days rations. At 8 a.m. we marched to Darnestown where we were joined by the 13th Mass. Infantry and continued our march to our old camping ground at Hyattstown. Our train did not get in till well toward morning, so that we were compelled to bivouac and spend the night without shelter. It was a cold wet disagreeable night. Company E succeeded in procuring a supply of wood and rails and brought them into camp, which Capt. Morrison, temporarily in command, insisted on dividing. He was informed that if he had men enough in Company A to take them he could divide but Co. E proposed to fight it out before any division was made.

Finding that he could not "skare" any body very bad, he waived his claim threatening to reduce the "orderly" to the ranks for insolent language to his superior. Being informed that he was not supposed to be the superior of any man in the 12th Regiment he returned to his blanket.

Oct. 11th Marched to Frederick City, where we went into camp. During the night there was another storm of wind and rain during which about three-fourths of our tents blew down and we had a repetition of our Dawsonville experience on a little larger scale. We remained in camp till 1 o'clock p.m. on the 12th when orders to march to Boonsboro was received. Away we went -left in front- and a merry march it was. Capt. Morrison had the rear and it was a chance to put him through not to or neglected. (It is a fact well known to Infantry soldiers that the rear is the hardest place to march in the column.) We halted on the summit to rest when Surgeon Lomax, came up and told us we were marching too fast. Company A could not keep up. He was assured that we all knew it and proposed to have about three miles "double quick" to work it off and as soon as orders were given to march again some one called out "double quick" and with a yell the regiment sprung forward and notwithstanding the efforts made by Major Hubler and the Adjutant to stop them, the double quick was kept up for nearly three miles and the Regiment went into camp at Boonsboro at 6 o'clock p.m. A march of 17 miles in 5 hours.

Oct. 13th Marched to Williamsport on the upper Potomac passing some very beautiful country. Here we find the 1st Maryland and 1st Virginia regiments in camp and we rested ourselves on the 14th preparatory to a march on the 15th to our destination, which it now appears is to be on picket duty at Dam No. 4. However unsatisfactory to us this arrangement may be we will have to submit as some regiment must fill the place in the line.

Oct. 15th Marched in company with Co. A and Co. H through Downs-ville. (Company) A going to Shepherds Island - E and H to Dam No. 4 while the balance of the Regiment is stationed at Sharpsburg and Antietam Bridge with Headquarters at Sharpsburg. After a march of about ten miles we went into camp in an old field on a hill overlooking the river, about one mile from the dam relieving a company of the 1st Virginia Regiment.

Oct. 16th Heavy firing down the river which we subsequently learned was a brisk fight between Col. Geary's forces and the Rebels at Harpers Ferry.

Oct. 17th Some of the men came in reporting a strong rebel force on the Virginia side, preparing for an attack on our position. They were planting a battery etc. Upon examination it proved to be two negroes with a wagon gathering corn.

Oct. 18th Received a dispatch from Col. Link that an attack was threatened by a strong force on Dam No. 4 with instructions to defend it at all hazards. The men are very anxious to burn powder.

Oct. 19th A force of about 75 men from Companies D, E and K crossed the river, which returned about 10 o'clock a.m. with 3 prisoners, 2 horses, 6 mules, 21 fat hogs, turkeys, chickens, hams, butter, etc. in abundance. So for a time at least we will fare sumptuously. The circumstances under which the above property was captured was a little peculiar. On the 16th the writer was instructed by Maj. Hubler, commanding the post, to examine the roads, ravines, houses etc. on the Virginia shore in the neighborhood of Hardscrabble and Shepherdstown and make a plat of the scene for the guidance of the force sent over on the 19th, whose main object was to be the capture of Henry Shepherd and a rebel picket force stationed on his premises. The plat was made and every important point noted, so that there could be no mistake made.

The expedition consisted of details from Co. K commanded by Capt. Draper and Co. E. commanded by Lieut. Milice of 12th Indiana and a portion of Co. D. NY Vols. commanded by Capt. Robinson. Capt. Draper being the ranking officer was placed in command and fully instructed as to the plan. A portion of Co. A under Capt. Morrison was ordered to cross the river at Shepherd's Island and move to a position which would effectually cut off the retreat of any one from Shepherd's. Owing to a dense fog which prevailed and the failure of Capt. Morrison to occupy the position assigned him, Shepherd and his son with the picket made their escape, excepting the men who were captured and who upon being brought into camp, took the oath of allegiance and were allowed to return home. Capt. Draper from some cause returned to camp very soon, leaving his force to take care of themselves. Capt. Robinson as soon as he found himself in command ordered his men back to camp, advising Lieut. Milice to return also. Lieut. Milice determined to carry out the orders as far as possible and proceeded to search the premises, making all the captures that were made and returned to camp at 10 o'clock.

Oct. 20th The men have been engaged digging Rifle Pits and constructing defenses at the dam, all day. During the night the picket at Bull Hollow was fired upon two or three times.

Oct. 21st Received and issued Overcoats, Blankets and Knapsacks. As a cool piece of imprudence, the following will pass muster. After our forces came back, two of the boys crossed the river and went back into the country about four miles. Coming back, they stopped at the house of one of the Strongest Secesh in that part of the country, took dinner with him and chatted about an hour, over the events of the morning, and then returned to camp, passing in full view of about 200 rebel cavalry, who, suspecting an ambuscade, made no attempt to molest them. In the evening a dispatch was received from Sharpsburg, that a force was marching toward this point to destroy the dam and we are ordered to protect it at all hazards.

Oct. 21st D. W. Hamlin started for home on Sick leave. The pickets were fired upon during the night.

Oct. 23rd Lieut. Gallagher with ten men crossed the river on a scout.

Oct. 27th Reports received that a force of the enemy 5000 strong was at Martinsburg.

Oct. 29th Capt. Williams returned from recruiting Service bringing about 250 recruits for the Regiment. Of them 22 were assigned to Company E increasing the effective force very materially and lightening the duties of the men proportionately. There was much dissatisfaction among the recruits on being assigned to the various companies as a majority of them expected to be assigned to Co. E and could hardly be reconciled to the idea of serving in another company. The recruits assigned to this company were:
Thomas J. Anderson
Solomon L. Milice (Mc)
Joseph S. Baker
Nathan B. McConnell
Virgil M. Chaplin
Silas H. McAlpine
John A. Campfield
Charles V. Pyle
Louis B. Davis
Austin M. Sanderson
Ephraim Foundling
Samuel Sechrist
Martin Galbreath
John Upsall
Joseph A. Goodman
James H. Williams
Elmer G. Harvey
Samuel Yohn
Stephen G. Hamlin
Edward Nichols
Henry H. Hubler
William E. Rousseau
Martin L. Lash

The boys met with a hearty welcome and a promise to give them a trip into Dixie in a few days.

Oct. 31st The Captain, 1st Sergeant and twelve men crossed the river at 11½ o'clock p.m. and made their way over the rocks, through fields, woods and mud for several hours but only succeeded in gaining some knowledge of the country which may prove advantageous hereafter.

November 1st Another squad, under Lieut. Milice crossed the river in the evening and proceeded back into the country several miles, notwithstanding a terrible rain storm that prevailed nearly all night. They passed within half a mile of a detachment of the enemy, 750 strong, who, but for the storm, would probably have given them trouble.

On the 2nd the storm continued all day without intermission and we were permitted to see the Potomac "on the high." The water raised so rapidly that it became necessary to call in the guard at, and below the dam. The rise was about twenty feet, the canal below the dam being entirely submerged, while the dam itself could only be distinguished in the mad rush of water, by the abutements and a slight depression where the foaming flood dashed over the breast of the dam which in ordinary stages is ten or twelve feet high. It was a grand and terrific sight, the waters foaming and boiling threatening to tear everything before it. So fierce was the flood that toward evening it was deemed necessary to call in the guard that was stationed at the Guard Lock. On going to their relief it was found that the guard had taken refuge with the family at the Lock, and all were upstairs, the lower floor being some three feet under water. A boat was procured and all were safely removed to safer quarters, until the waters would subside. Most of the men took refuge in the barns and houses in the vicinity of the camp, but a few of them made themselves as comfortable as possible in their quarters. This storm dampened the ardor of the recruits and they began to hint that there was not as much fun in soldiering as they had imagined.

The high waters put a stop to crossing the river for several days and the men had but little duty to perform in camp. In consequence of this frequent visits were made to Downsville about four miles north of the camp and some of the men were intoxicated nearly all the time and disturbances were of almost hourly occurrence. So annoying did this become that it was determined to put a stop to it and on the 9th, Lieut. Gallagher, 1st Serg't Hemphill and seven men proceeded to Downsville and compelled the dealers at that point to sign an agreement not to sell or give away any intoxicating liquors, to, or for a soldier, and also becoming responsible for liquors procured by citizens, which should find its way into the hands of the soldiers, under penalty of the destruction of their entire stock.

Nov. 10th The camp was surprised by a visit of the Chaplain, Revd. J. P. Watson, who had heretofore appeared to think that the men at Dam No. 4 were either very moral, or not worth saving. The rebel pickets on the other side of the river, were becoming more numerous and their force appeared to be increasing, rendering it necessary to be on the alert. Shots were frequently exchanged, but no great damage was done on either side. It was annoying, however.

The sale of liquors at Downsville had caused considerable trouble in camp. The fact that some of the commissioned officers, who proposed to be most anxious to suppress the sale, have it brought into camp by the gallon for their own use, and use it openly in the presence of the men to such an extent that "half drunk" seems to be their normal condition, does not tend to lessen the trouble. The Commander of the post, while somewhat under the influence of "old Rye" had a misunderstanding with privates Oliver Hubler and Aaron M. Wagner and after placing them under arrest, ordered them on guard duty for several hours. They were probably innocent of the offence of which they were accused, but were both rather stubborn and refused to do the guard duty. The Major ordered them to be confined in the guard house and ordered Capt. Williams to prefer charges against them for insubordination. It was only petty spite work, but the Captain was compelled to obey, the charges were preferred and a Court Martial ordered to convene at Regimental headquarters, at Sharpsburg, on the 12th, at which time the Court Martial met and adjourned till the 13th. The Captain and 1st Sergeant did all they could for the prisoners, and succeeded in having as light a penalty imposed as was possible, but Hubler was one of the "pig-headed" kind and from that time forward was the bitter enemy of those who had worked hard to save him from the undeserved punishment.

Nov. 13th A rather amusing fight came off just outside the guard lines in the evening. Jack Mankin, "Big Jack" as he was called, prided himself on his powers as a pugilist, and had always held a grudge against Corporal John Deardorff, who had been appointed to that office vice Jack, who was reduced to the ranks for getting drunk and resisting arrest. Jack had been "just honing" for a chance to get satisfaction out of Deardorff, without subjecting himself to the penalty therefore. On this occasion they had some misunderstanding and Jack tried every means he could think of to get Deardorff to fight him. Finally he proposed to get the Major's permission to go outside the guard line "just long enough to thresh Deardorff." Deardorff was agreed, and Jack made his wants known to the Major, who gave the necessary permission and instructed the guard to "pass the two men outside the lines and allow them to fight it out." Jack stripped himself and walked out, taking his position on a little knoll a few feet from the line. He was really a magnificent specimen of manhood, standing some six feet, four inches and well-built. Corporal Deardorff was not so tall by about three inches, but he was fully as heavy, and it looked as though it would be a battle between giants for both were more than ordinary men, both in size and strength, and both had some science.

The Corporal stripped for the fight very quietly, and some thought very reluctantly, and while Jack was smacking his fists and daring him to "come within reach," the Corporal, with a smile on his lips, stepped quietly across the line and walked deliberately up to Jack, who, having the choice of positions, reached for him with a blow that would have felled an ox. With the same good natured smile on his face, the Corporal parried the blow and gave Jack "a light tap" that sent him spinning about a rod. Jack came to the scratch a second, and a third time, only to meet the same cool smile and "light tap", but each time the "tap" increased in weight, the last one nearly sending him "to grass" the Corporal quietly remarking as he gave it "Jack, if you don't quit bothering me I'll hit you." Jack concluded not to bother him any more and they both returned to camp amid the cheers and laughter of the entire force who had watched the fight with much interest. Jack was satisfied and never bothered the Corporal again.

Nov. 15th Company marched to Sharpsburg and exchanged the old smooth-bore muskets for Springfield Rifles, returning to camp in the evening, muddy and tired, but better satisfied at having arms that would be of some service in an engagement as the muskets were fit for nothing but to drill with; a man could hardly hit the side of a barn, at twenty rods, with them. Had our first snow.

Nov. 16th A light snow and a very cold Northwest wind started the subject of winter quarters. On the 18th a barn across the river, belonging to a Union man who took refuge in Maryland, was burned down. It was without doubt, an incendiary fire, started by some of the rebel soldiers or guerilla, who are hovering around there.

Nov. 20th The command was made glad by the appearance of Major McKibbin who dealt out the first Treasury notes we have seen. In the evening a small force of the enemy was discovered on the Virginia side, and during the night a large amount of noise was discovered in camp. The latter was caused by the first investment of treasury notes, being made for whiskey, a supply of which had been procured at the bridge near the guard-lock. On the 21st the Captain with seven men proceeded to the bridge, took charge of the liquor and stored it away in a safe place. This was resented by private Frarey who indulged in some very abusive language concerning the Captain for which he was arrested and charges preferred.

Nov. 22th Enemy again seen on Virginia side of the river. They seemed to be growing bolder and suspicious persons have approached the pickets several times, who upon being challenged ran away. On the night of the 24th some person was discovered sneaking around camp and shortly afterwards signals were exchanged with some person or persons on the Virginia side. This kept the guards constantly on the alert as an attempt to destroy the dam was hourly expected.

On the 27th Company F made a raid upon Shepherdstown and captured a few prisoners. Mr. Cookers, our guide and scout was taken by the enemy and lodged in Charlestown jail. Mr. Williamson's hogs and horses were also confiscated by the rebels.

Dec. 1st Serg't Hemphill started for Indiana County, Pa. and Serg't Sam'l Boughter started for Carlisle, Pa. both having been granted furloughs to the 8th with leave to remain about until the 10th, to visit their parents from whom they had been absent several years.

Dec. 7th A small force of the enemy estimated at 400 infantry, 200 cavalry and a battery made a demonstration against Dam No. 5, but another company being sent to reinforce the picket force at that place on the 8th, the enemy retired after a sharp skirmish and losing several men. On the 10th about 40 or 50 of the enemy approached Dam No. 4 probably for the purpose of reconnoitering. Capt. Williams took a detachment from his company and went out to interview them, but they (the company) evidently were not looking for a fight and withdrew.

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